Tag Archive: Robert E Lee

Governor John Brown Russwurm (1799-1851) and pioneering Journalist Samuel Cornish (1795-1858) are the fathers and the sole creators of, ‘African American Journalism,’ which first began on March 16, 1827.

Now if you recall from your history books, and from my, ‘Black Dispatches And The American Civil War,’ news articles; 1827 was a time when slavery was still the law of the United States of America since slavery did not end in America until Confederate General Robert E. Lee decided to surrender to Republican General Ulysses S. Grant, which is what effectively ended the American Civil War on May 9, 1865 while simultaneously giving birth to the 1865 Galveston, Texas, ‘Juneteenth Independence Day Celebration,’ that’s still being actively observed by the African American communities within the United States of America and worldwide since African Americans in Texas were intentionally kept in slavery and forced to work for free, and beyond the January 1, 1863 signing of the, ‘Emancipation Proclamation,’ which is also known as the, ‘Proclamation 95 Executive Order,’ that effectively freed the Southern slaves prior to the passage of the 13th Amendment by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865.

The signing of ‘Proclamation 95’ by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, also freed the Southern slaves prior to the ratification of the 13th Amendment by the required number of states on December 6, 1865.

The signing of the ‘Emancipation Proclamation’ by the Republican President Abraham Lincoln, who was also the undisputed leader of the Union on January 1, 1863, also freed the Southern slaves prior to the proclamation of adoption, which was made by Secretary of State William H. Seward on December 18, 1865.   

But, what was life like for some African Americans in the year 1795, and prior to the signing of ‘Proclamation 95’ and the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America, and why isn’t this particular subject required reading for all American schools of journalism?

Samuel Cornish was a, ‘Free Born Black,’ and an Abolitionist, and a Presbyterian minister, and a pioneering Journalist, and an Editor, and a Business Owner, who was born to two free born black parents in Sussex County, Delaware in the year 1795, and prior to being raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and also in New York City, New York, which had been the unrivaled domain of the popular white journalist Mordecai Noah, who had been writing news articles for the ‘New York Enquirer’ in the year 1827.

Mordecai Noah had made it his business to denigrate the free born blacks that he had been writing about in his news articles even though a great percentage of the free born blacks in his immediate area, and throughout the country, were indeed descended from the ‘Black Jews’ or ‘Israelites’ that had been stolen from the soil of Western Africa where they had been worshipping their Hebrew God ‘Jehovah’ prior to the start of Chattel Slavery, and the atrocious American Slave System, that President Abraham Lincoln, and the United States Congress, and the states would eventually abolish with the presidential signing on February 1, 1865, and with the April 8, 1864, and the January 31, 1865 passage, and with the December 6, 1865 ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America.

But, what was life like for some African Americans prior to the advent of, ‘African American Journalism,’ in the year 1827, and prior to the signing of ‘Proclamation 95’ and the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America, and why isn’t this particular subject  required reading for all American schools of journalism?

The ‘Antebellum South’ continued to enslave and to murder and to torture and to rape the human beings from Africa while the white journalists continued to cover for them by normalizing their repugnant behavior, which had often manifested itself on Sundays, and prior to Governor John Brown Russwurm being born into the world as a, ‘Free Born Black.’

The free born status of Governor John Brown Russwurm would serve to open the eyes of thousands of Americans since he was not born in the United States of America, but would eventually become the second African American to earn a college degree from a prestigious American institution while his fellow African Americans were still being brutalized and raped and murdered and tortured and enslaved in certain parts of the United States of America while he was graduating from college in the year 1826.

But, what was life like for some African Americans in the year 1799, and prior to the signing of ‘Proclamation 95’ and the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America, and why isn’t this particular subject required reading for all American schools of journalism?

The United States was experiencing an ongoing runaway slave issue as well as a number of spontaneous slave revolts while recovering from the societal and structural damage that had come to America as a direct result of the, ‘1775 to 1783 American Revolution,’ when Governor John Brown Russwurm was born in Jamaica in the year 1799, and prior to moving to Quebec, Canada as a child where he had remained up until he decided to move to the state of Maine where he had enrolled in, ‘Bowdoin College.’

Governor Russwurm’s enrollment in classes at Bowdoin College took place shortly before he began to write term papers about the leader of the Haitian Revolution, Toussaint L’Ouverture.

The thought provoking term papers had served to stimulate many meaningful discussions amongst the students and staff prior to Governor Russwurm’s 1826 graduation speech, which had also centered on the Haitian Revolution since the Haitian Revolution is the epicenter of black resistance, as well as the birthplace for black independence from slavery.

Governor Russwurm’s passion for the truth and subsequent 1826 graduation from Bowdoin College would change the world of journalism forever since he would decide to move to New York City, New York where he would meet Samuel Cornish, who had already been living under the racially charged, and crushing arm of the ‘American Press’ which had been led in part by Mordecai Noah and the other white journalists, who had been practicing a cruel form of ‘Editorial Racism’ that can still be found in today’s journalistic climate.

The one sided world of editorial racism would soon meet its match since Governor John Brown Russwurm had long understood the role that media plays within a functioning society, and how it had already been used by the rich and by the powerful to create and to sustain a series of destructive and crushing stereotypes that were being used against the power-less, who in this case were the free born blacks that were being written about by Mordecai Noah, who had already demonstrated his overt racial bias towards the blacks in his widely read news articles that were also being read by the religious people of the day and also by law enforcement.  

The fight to bring truth and balance and justice to the existing world of journalism in 1827 would not be an easy one, however, Governor John Brown Russwurm, who was also a pioneering journalist, and Samuel Cornish were equally insightful men when they decided to take up the fight for truth and balance and justice in journalism, and having the indisputable confidence that comes along with being born free, they founded the very first owned and operated black newspaper in the United States of America on March 16, 1827.

The newspaper was called, ‘Freedom’s Journal,’ and its very first issue was a direct response to Mordecai Noah, and to the other white journalists that had also been openly practicing editorial racism in their news articles.

The rebuke and statement of ‘Journalistic Independence’ and declaration of freedom in print simply started off with the eternal words, “We wish to plead our own case.”

The ‘Independent News Media’ was created on March 16, 1827 when pioneering journalists John Brown Russwurm and Samuel Cornish wrote in an unmistakable language that could be understood by all, “Too long have others spoken for us. Too long has the publick been deceived by misrepresentation in things which concern us dearly.”

The immortal words, “We wish to plead our own case,” effectively created the world of, ‘Black Journalism’ or ‘African American Journalism’ when they were published in New York City, New York for the very first time on March 16, 1827.

The publishing of the words, “Too long have others spoken for us. Too long has the publick been deceived by misrepresentation in things which concern us dearly,” on March 16, 1827, has caused many to argue in recent days that the official ‘War On Fake News’ had actually begun on March 16, 1827, and with John Brown Russwurm and Samuel Cornish since black Americans had finally received a voice in print, and could therefore fully express themselves in a world of widely accepted ‘Journalistic Racism.’

The world at large and the world of ‘American Journalism’ would never be the same again since Freedom’s Journal was indeed an entirely ‘New’ form of media that would forever be known as , ‘Black Journalism’ or as ‘African American Journalism.’

The world of journalism was made whole on March 16, 1827 since Freedom’s Journal was an abolitionist minded four column periodical that had helped to change the debate about race, as well as the social construction of race itself, since everything that had been taught and said about race had come through the lens of the rich and the powerful, and also through the lens of white men like Mordecai Noah, who had known next to nothing about the free born blacks that he had been writing about since his great, great grandparents and his great grandparents had not been stolen from their homes in Africa and enslaved in America and forced to call ‘Jesus’ their God instead of ‘Yahweh’ who they had known from birth.

The lens of the victims of racism had been completely ignored by most news outlets, however, that would soon change in 1827 since Freedom’s Journal was printed every Friday, and had sought to instill a sense of pride within the affected African American communities that had also been reading Mordecai Noah’s editorial racism by publishing short biographies that were about the prominent blacks that wouldn’t be allowed to appear in Mordecai Noah’s news articles.

Samuel Cornish and Governor John Brown Russwurm also published black poets, and various sermons, and the births and the deaths of the blacks that were located within the local African American Communities. They also published marriage announcements and foreign and domestic news stories, and advertisements, as well as editorials that rightfully condemned slavery, and racial discrimination, and the other outlandish injustices that were being endured by African Americans while many of the white owned and operated newspapers in New York City were openly embracing and supporting slavery and racial bias against black people by being ‘Editorially Complicit’ in this crime against humanity.

The brand new form of media that Samuel Eli Cornish and Governor John Brown Russwurm had effectively created in New York City, New York on March 16, 1827, had hit the ground running since there was nothing else like it in all of the United States of America. However, in September of 1827 John Brown Russwurm became the sole editor of Freedom’s Journal shortly after Samuel Cornish unexpectedly resigned from the paper over a series of disputes that were related to the African American colonization of Africa effort, which is something that John Brown Russwurm had been promoting due to his support for, ‘The Colonization Movement,’ that was being led by the, ‘American Colonization Society,’ who had wanted to free the African American slaves while offering them the opportunity to move back to Africa after they had already been forced to build a paradise for their white slave masers, who had already raped and tortured their sons and their daughters.

The idea of leaving America to the very same whites that had already enslaved millions of black people did not sit well with the readers, who had previously remained loyal to Russwurm after Cornish abruptly left the paper due to their irreconcilable disputes over colonizing Africa.

The loyalty had come to an end and Freedom’s Journal’s support for the colonization of Africa effort would prove to be extremely unpopular with its readers, and with the unforeseen loss of subscriptions, and circulation in March of 1829, Freedom’s Journal was forced to cease operations shortly before John Brown Russwurm decided to move to Liberia, Africa, which is the area in Western Africa that was established by the American Colonization Society for the blacks that they were able to recruit in America prior to the move back to Africa, and far away from the country that had wronged them.

The new arrivals eventually settled in and began their new lives while John Brown Russwurm went on to become the Governor of Liberia’s Maryland Colony while his former business partner Samuel Cornish returned to publishing in 1829 and tried to re-establish Freedom’s Journal under the new name, ‘The Rights of All.’

However, the new newspaper only lasted less than a year since the readers were still upset over the colonization of Africa effort that John Brown Russwurm had championed while he was the sole editor of Freedom’s Journal.                                               

 Nathaniel Armstrong, Jr.

Cerritos, CA –


“Black Dispatches” was an intelligence term that was widely used by the Union Forces that were still loyal to President Abraham Lincoln during the tumultuous and worrisome days of the American Civil War, which had ended with the deaths of more than 700,000 men in the spring of 1865.

The Black Dispatches were freely given to the Union by a collection of African American spies or intelligence gatherers, who were still being enslaved by the Confederates, and their citizens, who were being backed up by a group of non-slave owning white sympathizers, who were trying their absolute very best to prevent the inevitable collapse of the Southern states and their debauched kingdom of Chattel Slavery, and sickness and death, and untold misery.

The aforementioned Black Dispatches were also provided by another group of African American spies, who had suddenly come under the command and/or control of several Union Soldiers, who made the conscious decision to use the war-time information, that the former slaves had secretly obtained through a number of frontline military debriefings, to gain the upper hand during the war, and to thwart and frustrate the efforts of the seasoned Confederate Generals, and their lower ranking soldiers, who were also being actively spied on, and who were very much like their Confederate President Jefferson Davis, who could have never imagined within his wildest dreams that the black captives in his charge could be anything else besides a slave since he, like the others before him, simply didn’t understand that the blacks in their custody had previously been part of an advanced civilization that had also included a number of prominent black spies, who had secretly worked for a number of kings and queens in Africa, and  prior to the advent of Chattel Slavery, and the West African Slave Trade, which had already gotten underway in Africa prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492.

The arrival of Christopher Columbus, which had occurred about a half of a century after the start of the West African Slave Trade, would simply be the beginning of a series of non-Native American initiated wars, and non-Native American armies since the Confederate Generals, and the men that were serving underneath them would become a separate and formidable army, who had yet to meet up with the devout Civil War era African American spies that would suddenly and unexpectedly spring up all over the South, and who would be both males and females, as well as victims of an international kidnapping ring since they had been forcibly transported to America against their wills while they were being taken from their peaceful and loving homes on the Western Coast of Africa where they had not given their consent to be enslaved under the American slave system, which was drastically different from the kind of “Indentured Servitude” that we can find in the Hebrew Bible, and that had also existed in certain African slave states, who gave their African slaves the right to testify in court and to get married and to have a nuclear family and to inherit their master’s property upon his death.

The Union spies of African American ancestry knew African history and African law as well as the contrasting differences between indentured servitude and the American slave system, which as far as they were concerned had to be abolished at all costs since it had represented a form of unshakable evil that had never been seen before since it was married to a new form of unchecked greed that had known no end since it was indeed the beast that eats the poor of the land.

The Confederate system represented death and sickness and misery for millions of African Americans, and had to be stopped through acts of espionage and armed conflict, and the black slaves were the perfect weapon since they knew the lay of the land and could infiltrate any area of the Confederacy, which was easily demonstrated when Mary Richards Bowser, who was born a slave to a family with Northern roots, and who was also a, “Union Spy,” as well as a top secret and deep cover, “Agent In Place,” who had once been owned by the Van Lew family, was secretly gathering valuable Union intelligence on the Confederates while she was working as a staff member inside the Jefferson Davis Richmond Virginia based “White House” while the rest of the South was crawling with her fellow African American Union spies, who were unshakably loyal to President Lincoln and also to his Union Soldiers, who were also African Americans.

The Black Dispatches or “Wartime Intelligence Reports” that Mary Richards Bowser, who was also known as, “Richmonia Richards,” had been secretly compiling on the Confederate President Jefferson Davis while she was working inside his White House, had continued to stream in as the war for control over the Southern States had continued to wage on, and while the Confederates were none the wiser since they had incorrectly assumed that all slaves were the same and that they couldn’t think and that they had extremely low IQs even though Timbuktu had been the center of learning long before America was even a concept, and even though enslaved African Americans were publishing an American newspaper in the year 1827.

The Black Dispatches as well as a series of open gun battles that were taking place between the Confederates and the black Union Soldiers that were fighting to end slavery once and for all, had proven the Confederates wrong on all accounts while simultaneously changing the entire course of the American Civil War and American history itself since the very least in the American kingdom had turned out to be the most formidable intelligence gathers that The Republic had ever seen since no one besides the slaves themselves believed or thought or knew that the slaves could be much more than just slaves when the Civil War between the Confederate States and the Union States first got underway in April of 1861.

And while the Union Soldiers might have also received sets of helpful information from their white sympathizers like the “Peace Society” of Alabama and East Tennessee and Georgia and Mississippi, no one was more effective against the Confederate States than the slaves, and former slaves had been while they were serving the Union under the leadership of the capable Union Soldiers that ultimately regained control of the country while also receiving verified intelligence reports from, “The Network of Northern Spies,” who had also managed to infiltrate the South during a separate spying operation. The Network of Northern Spies was primarily comprised of devout Catholics and Methodists and Jews and unyielding Quakers and other groups of faith that were present in the United States during the turbulent 1860s.  

The tumultuous 1860s are seen by many as America’s greatest period to date since the religious people in the North and also in the South had joined forces with the black slaves from Africa while taking on the Southern establishment, which was also seen by many as Satanic in nature and as an abomination.

The word abomination was being widely used during the war filled 1860s, which is indeed why some people still see the period between 1861 and 1865 as a type of holy war since the slaves and former slaves, who had already escaped to Union territory, and who were actively supplying the incomparable Black Dispatches that were being used by President Lincoln’s Forces, had risked their lives by going behind enemy lines just like the Hebrew spies had done thousands of years before them when they entered the ancient city of Jericho, and when they met the biblical figure Rehab, who had saved the lives of the two Israelite spies by hiding them on her roof top while sending the king’s guards in a different direction. The Hebrew spies had been sent by Joshua to gauge the defenses of Jericho when Rehab, who was a prostitute, demonstrated her faith in the Israelite God by saying to the Hebrew spies, “The Lord your God is God in heaven above and on the earth below.”

The Black Dispatches were a modern day example of the Israelite intelligence reports that were delivered to Joshua since the African American intelligence reports had also revealed considerable weaknesses that had existed within the unsuspecting Confederate Soldiers’ defenses, and while some will try to claim that the South lost the Civil War due to a lack of men, the Union Generals of the day knew better since General Robert E. Lee, who was in command of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, openly stated in May of 1863, “The chief source of information to the enemy is through our Negroes.”      

The Black Dispatches proved to be Jefferson Davis’ and Robert E. Lee’s undoing since a large portion of runaway slaves, who were previously thought dumb by the Confederates due to their menial work, which allowed them to move about undetected, had also provided crippling war-time intelligence reports to the Union while searching for a place or a city to call their own in a world of open warfare.

African Americans not only participated in the intelligence gathering aspect of the American Civil War, for they also conducted tactical and strategic “Union Intelligence Missions” that required them to go behind enemy lines and to remain in place and to assassinate scores of Confederate Soldiers, which was not an easy task to accomplish since the Confederate Soldiers had already won some impressive battles against the Union, and had also participated in numerous wars against the American Indians, who were also fighting against the Mexican Cavalry, who had also stolen their land while the African American spies in the South were handing the keys to the kingdom to President Lincoln and his Union Forces.   

The war-time Black Dispatches, which were obtained by eavesdropping on Confederate President Jefferson Davis, and numerous Confederate war discussions while hiding pieces of written information inside one’s shoes and other articles of clothing while actively remembering large portions of classified Confederate war strategies: were extremely lethal pieces of intelligence and were therefore used throughout the remainder of the Civil War since they were the absolute very best defense that could be used against the Confederate Forces since the Confederates wouldn’t be looking for the black spies or for the black assassins, who were just as loyal to the Union Forces as Harriet Tubman had been.                                    

Nathaniel Armstrong, Jr.

Cerritos, CA –



Political Armageddon

As a Journalist Futurist and Designer I am able to bring you the contents of my mind while pinpointing the kinds of interviews that will enrich us as a society since our problems tend to manifest themselves due to a lack of understanding as well as the absence of compassion and a real education that is coupled with the truth.

I had the opportunity to interview a 43 year African American named Masimo and he stated that the radio station KPFK is an example of “Political Armageddon“ since they are only beholden to the listeners that support them which is why you can listen to a tribute to the late great Dick Gregory who created a Political Armageddon in his day by fasting for the things that were right and that still plague us Americans today since African Americans are still getting the short end of the stick when it comes to jobs and housing and health care and overall opportunities since the White Supremacists still want to place black Americans in lesser and lesser roles in society while the undercover White Nationalists and Nazis are stealing black American ideas since the White Supremacists are the only ones that can shine in America.

Masimo also stated that Dick Gregory changed the hearts and minds of many white Americans by producing the kind of comedy and eye opening speeches that revealed the truth about the times that he was living in. Masimo also stated that Dick Gregory put his life on the line by taking a stance against racism and injustice and by fasting for 40 days.

Political Armageddon was also achieved when the very first African American appeared on the radio and television since it caused a battle between the modern day Abolitionists and the White Supremacists that never wanted blacks to be involved in any aspect of American life.

Dick Gregory fought to change the old America that only saw blacks as property. He also helped to pave the way for the removal of the Confederate statues that Masimo states have been used to bully black Americans and to remind them that the White Supremacists are still present in America and that they will control what history is told and even if it excludes the contributions of the African Americans that fought during the Revolution and the Civil War that Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee lost since they were on the wrong side of history.    

Nathaniel Armstrong, Jr.

Cerritos, CA –